[49] Alexander spared Arrhidaeus, who was by all accounts mentally disabled, possibly as a result of poisoning by Olympias. [33] By the 4th century AD the resting place of Alexander was no longer known; later authors, such as Ibn 'Abd al-Hakam, Al-Masudi and Leo the African, report having seen Alexander's tomb. [128], Alexander sent much of his army to Carmania (modern southern Iran) with general Craterus, and commissioned a fleet to explore the Persian Gulf shore under his admiral Nearchus, while he led the rest back to Persia through the more difficult southern route along the Gedrosian Desert and Makran. After that victory he was sent by Alexander in pursuit of Porus (Indian name Puru), to whom he was charged to offer favourable terms, but narrowly escaped losing his life at the hands of his old enemy. Alexander proceeded to take possession of Syria, and most of the coast of the Levant. English. Theories concerning his cause of death have ranged from poisoning to malaria to meningitis to bacterial infection from drinking contaminated water (among others). He died in Babylon at the age of 32 on 10 or 11 June 323 BCE after suffering ten days of high fever. He had a high complexion and a harsh voice. Ancient Antioch, Glanville Downey, Princeton University Press, 2015. Was it Veratrum album? [253][255][256] The Yavanajataka (lit. [279], In Greek Anthology there are poems referring to Alexander.[280][281]. Before his death, Alexander wanted to explore more of the coast of his own land to expand maritime trade. This is cited as a reason for sparing Jerusalem. Alexander not only returned Ambhi his title and the gifts but he also presented him with a wardrobe of "Persian robes, gold and silver ornaments, 30 horses and 1,000 talents in gold". [71] According to the story, Alexander proclaimed that it did not matter how the knot was undone and hacked it apart with his sword. [124], East of Porus' kingdom, near the Ganges River, was the Nanda Empire of Magadha, and further east, the Gangaridai Empire of Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent. Alexandra The Great QuizRelated:What great civilization did Alexander the Great come from? His beard was scanty, and he stood out against his hirsute Macedonian barons by going clean-shaven. All three of these people had motive to have Philip murdered. He colonized it with Greeks, and founded a city named Alexandropolis. The Mysterious early death of Alexander The Great, raises question, What was the real cause of his death? Miletus, held by Achaemenid forces, required a delicate siege operation, with Persian naval forces nearby. [121] Alexander founded two cities on opposite sides of the Hydaspes river, naming one Bucephala, in honour of his horse, who died around this time. Several examples of capitals displaying Ionic influences can be seen as far as Patna, especially with the Pataliputra capital, dated to the 3rd century BC. Taking advantage of this power vacuum, Chandragupta Maurya (referred to in Greek sources as "Sandrokottos"), of relatively humble origin, took control of the Punjab, and with that power base proceeded to conquer the Nanda Empire. [5] The Chaldeans also warned Alexander against marching westwards as he would then look to the setting sun, a symbol of decline. Ancient commentators were divided about whether the ambitious Olympias promulgated the story of Alexander's divine parentage, variously claiming that she had told Alexander, or that she dismissed the suggestion as impious. [57], News then reached Alexander that Cleitus, King of Illyria, and King Glaukias of the Taulantii were in open revolt against his authority. [209] He began to identify himself as the son of Zeus-Ammon. However, the infantry, under the command of Meleager, rejected this arrangement since they had been excluded from the discussion. [165] The recent discovery of an enormous tomb in northern Greece, at Amphipolis, dating from the time of Alexander the Great[166] has given rise to speculation that its original intent was to be the burial place of Alexander. [119][120] Choosing a local helped him control these lands so distant from Greece. At the time of his death, Alexander's empire covered some 5,200,000 km2 (2,000,000 sq mi),[234] and was the largest state of its time. He became mute because of a previous injury to his neck from the Siege of Cyropolis. [79], Alexander advanced on Egypt in later 332 BC, where he was regarded as a liberator. [228], Green argues that there is little evidence in ancient sources that Alexander had much carnal interest in women; he did not produce an heir until the very end of his life. 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